For many millennia dances were a reflection of a "living human speech" and his movements. Through his movements, through song and music man expresses his feelings, sadness, joy, pain, passion, desires, erotics. The dance has been around for a very long time and for ever, as art and games. Countries, kingdoms, cultures and civilizations will sooner or later fall into decay,but the dances stay in their virtually infinite initial forms and migrate from continent to continent, adapting new cultures and civilizations. Some dances are already several thousands of years old, others have been arround for several centuries, some are just born. There are actualy infinity of Initial forms of dance; Dance - is child's play and jumps, as well as the highest level of performance in the ballet movements, stamping of the tribe after rain and skilful spinning of Fred Astaire, witty coquetry of rural girls, sport, competition, carnival, glittering show for the public. We know the dances of broad social circles (ethnic, national, secular, carnival), the dance of high society culture (ballet, stage dance, modern dance, jazz, musical) and dance of major league athletes (sport dance). In different historical periods, the dance is a part of education, part of the everyday or festive events; it is culture, religion, profession, treatment and therapy, education, entertainment, presentation, art. Wecan practice dances for entire life. While dancing, we maintain or develop our functional abilities, it improves the function of the heart, lungs and blood vessels, it improves our endurance and aerobic capacity, we acquire a sense of rhythm and beauty, elegant movement, a look at life more laid-back, cheerful, we feel better.
Classical Dance is principal means of expression for ballet; system based on careful development of various groups of movements that emerged at the end of the XVI century in Italy and received its further development in France thanks to the court ballet.
Thanks to compliance with certain positions the legs, arms, body and head, and strict adherence to the principles of turnout legs, body upright and the isolation of its various parts, classical dance movements tend to geometrical clarity.
Fundamentals of classical dance are produced using the Exercise, which consists of a dance lesson as a student and a professional ballet dancer.
Elements of exercises taken from classical dance, are included in the training program for artistic and rhythmic gymnastics, figure skating, pop dance, sports rock-n-roll, acrobatics, ballroom dancing.
One of the basic requirements of classical choreography - a turnout position of the feet. The first ballet performers were court nobles. All they mastered the art of fencing, in which they used turnout position of the legs, allowing for better movement in all directions. From fencing requirements for turnout went into the choreography, which was self-evident to the French court.
Another feature of the ballet - performance on toes - appeared only in the 18th century, when Marie Taglioni first used this technique. Each school and each dancer have made their own characteristics in the art of ballet, enriching it and making it more popular.
Ballet is an art of inspired sculpture, thoughts, embodied in the movement, life, shown by means of choreography
Ballet - an art form in which the intent of the creator is embodied by means of choreography. Ballet performance has the plot, theme, idea, dramatic content, the libretto. Only in rare cases there are plotless ballets. In others by choreographic means dancers must convey a sense of the characters, the plot, the action. Ballet dancer is an actor who using dance transmits relationship of heroes, their communication with each other, the essence of what is happening in the scene
Ballet emerged in Italy in the 16th century. At this time the dance scenes were included as an episode in the musical performance,opera. Later, in France, the ballet is being developed as a magnificent, sublime at court action.
Birthday of ballet around the world is considered to be 15 October 1581. On this day in France Balta to the public its creation presented the Italian choreographer Baltasarini di Belgioioso. His ballet called "Tsirtsey or comedy ballet of the queen." Presentation's duration is about five hours.
The first French ballets basically had the court and folk dances and melodies. Along with the music, in the play were spoken and dramatic scenes.
The increase of popularity and the flouris of the art of ballet was helped by Louis the 14th. The court nobles of that time with pleasure took part in the performances themselves. Even the radiant King got his nickname "Sun King" because of the role he played in one of the ballets of the court composer Lully.
In 1661, Louis the 14th was the founder of the world's first ballet school - the Royal Academy of Dance. Lully became head of school, which determined the development of ballet for the next century. Since Lully was a composer, he decided dependence of dance moves to the construction of musical phrases, and the nature of the dance moves - on the nature of music. In collaboration with Molière and Pierre Beauchamp - dance teacher of Louis 14th - were created theoretical and practical foundations of the art of ballet. Pierre Beauchamp began to develop classical dance terminology. To this day, the terms to label and describe the basic ballet positions and combinations are used in the French language.
In the 17th century ballet added new genres such as ballet-opera, ballet-comedy. Attempts to create a performance in which music would naturally displayed the storyline and dance, in turn, organically flowed into the music. Thus, the foundations of ballet: the unity of music, dance and drama.
Since 1681, participation in the ballet was made available to women. Only men were allowed to participate until that time as the ballet dancers. Its final form, as a separate form of art, ballet gets only in the second half of the 18th century thanks to the innovation of scenic French choreographer Jean Georges Nover. His reforms - music having an active role in choreography as the basis for a ballet performance.
The development of ballet in Russia
The first ballet in Russia was held February 8, 1673 in the village of Преображенское at the court of Tsar Alexander Mikhailovich. The peculiarity of Russian ballet forms French choreographer Charles-Louis Didlo. He claims the priority of women's roles in the dance, increases the role of the corps de ballet, strengthens the connection between dance and pantomime. A true revolution in the ballet music made by P.I. Tchaikovsky in his three ballets: "The Nutcracker," "Swan Lake" and "Sleeping Beauty." These works, and settings behind them are unsurpassed pearl of musical and dance genres, unparalleled depth and beauty of the dramatic content of figurative expression.
Character Dance (fr. Danse de caractere, danse caracteristique), one of the means of expression of the ballet theater, kind of stage dance. In the early 19th century, the term served as a definition of dance in nature, in the image. Used mainly in the interludes in which the actors were artisans, peasants, sailors, beggars, robbers, etc. Dances were based on movements that characterize this character, often included everyday gestures.; the composition is less strict than in classical dance. In the early 19th century K. Blazis began to call any character dance folk dance, staged in ballet. This meaning is preserved in the 20th century.
The process of transformation in the typical folk dance intensified in the heyday of romantic ballet performances F. Taglioni, Jean Perrault, Charles Didlo where romanticism aesthetics determines the national character, while character dance recreated life, opposed to the surreal world sylphs and mollusks, or romanticized.
In ballet of this period main means of expression by characteristic dancers becomes grotesque. The national character, national image of character dance in the classical ballet remained genuine, authentic. Samples of character dance by M.I. Petipa and L.I. Ivanov kept the mood and color, required for the development of the plot of the play. Choreographers and dancers of classical dance school built charecter dance on the basis of this school. In the late 19th century was created character dance Exercise (later approved as an academic discipline), where different folk dance movements performed within the strict limits of classical dance school.